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Amoris Laetitia in 140 Characters or Less

Pope-Francis

Written originally for Marginalia

Catholics and non-Catholics alike eagerly awaited the publication of Apostolic Exhortation Amoris Laetitia. Released April 8th at noon Vatican time, the 256-page document discusses issues faced by contemporary families and features recommendations for priests for readmitting “divorced and remarried” church members who have not received annulments to the sacrament of Communion. Like most church documents, Amoris Laetitia draws from the Bible, Church history, theology, and Catholic social teachings. While Amoris Laetitia is more straightforward than other Papal documents, delving into its contents is still a time consuming exercise.

This may be why the Papal Twitter account, @Pontifex, has been tweeting brief messages about the relationship of the family to society since the document’s release.

Francis-Tweet-1024x488

The content of the Papal tweets reflects the document’s overall message: support for families in a world lacking in universal economic and social justice “inspired by the message of love and tenderness.” This series of tweets, similar to those following the release of the environmental encyclical Laudato Si’ in May 2015, while certainly rooted in Catholic theology and social teachings, appeal to the universality of the needs of human families. In doing so, @Pontifex presents both an abridged version of Amoris Laetitia, as well as a version of his message without any controversial elements.

While the tweets stress universality, in reality, Amoris Laetitia regularly alludes to diversity and social issues that are divisive in the church. The document speaks of the need for the global Church to “seek solutions better suited to its culture and sensitive to its tradition and local needs.” While echoing Francis’ common theme of economic justice as a prerequisite for social justice, Amoris Laetitia also revisits annulments, contains a lukewarm yet conditional nod to feminism, and expresses tolerance of (but not marriage equality for) LGBTQ persons. It is, in short, a sophisticated theological work with layers of nuance not easily captured in 140 character bursts.

That being said, expressing his position in universal tweets is in keeping with Francis’ Papacy overall. While some media outlets have speculated that his decision to participate in social media may be to appeal to millennials, a more accurate interpretation may be that the Papal Twitter account is an accessible platform for expressing public policy to the Church and the world at large. A Pope known for being well-liked by Catholics, people of other religious traditions, and the so-called religious “nones,” Francis seems to know what his social media followers want and need to hear, leaving behind the nuance and details present in the full Exhortation issued by the church.

Amoris Laetitia won’t appease liberals inside and outside of the church who hope for definitive statements on issues like homosexuality and women’s rights, and it has angered some traditional Catholics who view the document as a major deviation from Church doctrine. However, neither group is Francis’ target audience. Instead, the Pope wants the core of his message to resonate beyond the confines of the Catholic Church. This goal is reflected in the Papal tweets related to Amoris Laetitia. In drawing on cross-cultural values like the importance of family and love, these Papal tweets contain a generic message most people will find non-controversial. With over 9 million Twitter followers, Pope Francis hopes to share his message about the plight of the family in the modern world 140 characters at a time.

Image via Wikimedia Commons

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Invoking Francis: Bernie on the Border

Written originally for Marginalia

Religion and the religious language used by candidates and their supporters is a common topic of debate and analysis during most American election seasons. We’re still eight months away from the election, but so far the 2016 Presidential campaign season has featured a significant amount of rhetoric from Republican candidates making appeals to the Christian Right while also detailing what religious groups aren’t welcome in the U.S. Although Democratic candidates will occasionally address religious groups or talk about their faith, their comments on this topic generally don’t elicit headlines.

That’s what makes Bernie Sanders’ appeal to Pope Francis’ comments on immigration in Nogales, Arizona on March 19th stand out.

While the crowds for Sanders were smaller than those for the Pope, and the two men spoke in different states, Sanders’ decision to speak in front of the border wall sends a powerful message about their stances on immigration. In many ways, it symbolically links Sanders’ immigration platform with the Pope’s appearance at the border, which was ultimately as political as it was spiritual. At the very beginning of his speech, Sanders set the tone for the rest of his message by paraphrasing the Pope. Sanders explained that Pope Francis said, “that ultimately, the solution is going to be compassion, not hatred. It is going to be good public policy not bigotry. And I agree, very much, with what Pope Francis said.”

Standing in front of the U.S.-Mexico border wall, Sanders invoked Pope Francis twice while discussing his platform for immigration reform. The son of an immigrant, Sanders denounced the immigration stings that have taken place in recent months as well as the splitting apart of families. In his speech, he highlighted the contributions of immigrants to the United States, calling attention to his own father’s immigrant status. While speaking on immigration broadly, Sanders emphasized the sadness, fear, and frustration felt by Latino immigrants in the U.S by referring to individual stories he has heard while on the campaign trail. In many ways, this reflected the Pope’s sentiment that we should “measure” the crisis of forced migration “with names, stories, families” rather than “numbers and statistics.”

The Pope’s visit to the border in Juárez, which drew an estimated 200,000 people, included comments that framed the ongoing immigration crisis as a “human tragedy” and a “humanitarian crisis.” When he voiced his opinion on Donald Trump’s plan to deport large numbers of Latino immigrants, Republicans took offense to the Pope’s comment that those who think “only about building walls…and not building bridges” act in a way that “is not Christian” — a phrase which members of the media were more than eager to take out of context. On the border, Sanders framed his rejection of Trump’s proposal using the Pope’s language saying, “Pope Francis has made the point that we should be building more bridges, not more walls. Pope Francis is right. Donald Trump and Sheriff Arpaio are wrong.”

Only time will tell if Sander’s choice to echo the Pope’s call for bridges instead of walls will have a lasting impact on Catholic and, specifically, Latino Catholic voters. Regardless of the political outcome, Sanders’ rhetorical choices strategically link the candidate’s political concerns about immigration policy to larger spiritual concerns for human dignity. Appealing to a specific faith, in this case Catholic,  is an uncommon tactic for Democratic candidates in the current election cycle . Instead, their mentions of religion are generally inclusive of a variety of faiths and can perhaps best be described as pluralistic. Given that Sanders’ platform emphasizes social and economic equality, using the language of a widely respected Pope who is largely perceived to be an advocate for those same goals may be a way for the Sanders campaign to demonstrate that the candidate’s goals share some rather holy company.

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Welcome to Religion Everywhere

Guadalupe in Cactus

Religion Everywhere is a blog with a simple concept: religion (broadly defined) can be found almost everywhere and plays an important role in contemporary global society.

My name is Sarah “Moxy” Moczygemba, I’m a doctoral student at the University of Florida who focuses on Religion in the Americas-a fancy name for the transnational flows of religious people, traditions, and objects. For me, religion is a central part of our culture, and I find instances of it everywhere. This blog is intended to give me a space to muse on my own personal encounters with religion found outside of spaces people typically consider to serve religious purposes-like churches, temples, and mosques- as well as traditional definitions of the term.

Religion is a charged and often personal topic. Having spent the better part of a decade studying and teaching religion in the classroom, it has become apparent to me that religion is a pervasive cultural force. I approach any exploration of religion keeping that simple fact in mind. Regardless of where you stand on the role of religion and belief in the 21st century, it continues to be a powerful actor in our global culture. I embrace the idea of methodological agnosticism, which means I will make no claims about the core truth of the religious ideas I discuss. In this blog, I will neither be advocating or denouncing religious beliefs. However, I do reserve the right to comment on their larger cultural implications.

In short, this blog is a space for me to muse on religious issues, events, and sightings I encounter in person and on the web. I intend for my thoughts to be generally accessible while still incorporating concepts discussed in religious studies scholarship. This is in hopes of dispelling the notion that these ideas are locked in the so-called “ivory tower” of academic life. I hope to share my passion for religious studies while adding nuance to discussions of religion in popular culture.

Welcome, and I hope you enjoy being on this journey with me.